On 20th March the History Centre temporarily closed its doors to staff and public in line with national guidance for dealing with Covid-19. Unsure when we would return staff from all teams faced the challenge of working from home without face-to-face contact with our colleagues and community of visitors, as well as the loss of physical access to our extensive collections and resources.
Despite these restrictions, our industrious and enterprising teams have been working away on a range of projects and initiatives, from the comfort (or discomfort) of our own homes. In addition, several colleagues have combined their History Centre commitments with voluntary community support work, helping the more vulnerable members of society. As Wiltshire Council employees we have also been supporting the local authority’s response to the pandemic.
Here is an update from the first of our teams, detailing some of the ventures we have undertaken to adapt and maintain our services during lockdown.
Wiltshire Buildings Record
The WBR normally opens its doors to the public on a Tuesday. Because of the restrictions we have not been able to see any visitors since the end of March, but that has not stopped enquirers emailing. It seems that while people have time on their hands, not being able to work, researching the history of their house seemed like a great pastime. Without physical access to our own records and the archive collections, we have had to manage researchers’ expectations and point them to online resources.
Of course, there are several different ways of doing research online, and I have managed to direct some enquirers to useful websites that can answer their questions without the need for a visit. A great jumping off point is the map comparison website Know your Place. We are extremely fortunate that for Wiltshire, Somerset, Gloucestershire and Bristol you can tell immediately whether a building existed at a certain period right back to c1840.
Other ways of researching are:
Check the Wiltshire and Swindon Archives online catalogue to see if there are any immediately relevant documents. The documents are not available online but once the History Centre is open again to the public you will be able to look at sources such as deeds, maps, censuses, Enclosure awards etc.
Victoria County History gives an excellent overview of Wiltshire parish histories that have been covered so far and is available online.
With the easing of lockdown, we were able to resume searching our own WBR records and our specialist research service has restarted in a limited way. WBR is now beginning to undertake commissioned histories for interest again, so please do call or email for a chat. You can find all our contact details on the WBR pages of this website.
The Archaeology team has had an eventful lockdown period which has seen two members of staff leave and two new colleagues arrive, while we also sadly lost one of our World Heritage Site team, Sarah Simmons, who left her post after 14 years to pursue new goals.
The challenges of working in lockdown were mostly faced by our two new recruits; Neil Adam and Michal Cepak who are now the Assistant County Archaeologists under Melanie Pomeroy-Killinger. Both Neil and Michal have had to go through staff inductions and learn the job while working from home, but happily this task has been greatly aided by superb help from Melanie as well as from the HER (Historic Environment Record) team of Tom Sunley and Jacqui Ramsay.
In terms of the day to day, little has changed for archaeology. The business of local government continued with planning applications to be assessed and major public works, such as the A303 Stonehenge by-pass, to be planned for with other colleagues in the Council as well as colleagues in Historic England and a myriad of other government departments and interested parties.
Lockdown has meant the cancellation of our heritage walks this summer, along with a number of other public events that we had planned, but we do plan to reach out to you through a digital strategy that should see far more content going online for the public at large to access.
Living and working in lockdown has brought a unique set of challenges, but as things slowly ease, we will return to what is nowadays called a ‘new normal’, probably never exactly as it was prior to 26th March 2020, but with the same sense of public service along with a few new ways of working and presenting our data to you.
In Part 2, we will hear how the Archives and Local Studies team, Conservation and Museums Advisory Service (CMAS) and Education Service have kept busy during lockdown.
Neil Adam, Assistant County Archaeologist
Dorothy Treasure, Buildings Recorder, WBR
Heather Perry, Conservation and Museum Manager (CMAS)
Back in 2014 we were fortunate in securing a National Heritage Lottery Fund award as part of their Collecting Cultures project. This gave us funding to connect and support museum collections throughout the county of Wiltshire in a variety of ways. We could add to collections, perhaps filling gaps where creativity was unrepresented, provide conservation, training and support for museum staff and volunteers and generally connect with our museum network in a way that would build strong links for the future. We hoped to create a legacy that would reflect the creative influence of our county.
The journey has taken five years to complete and we have recently submitted our final evaluation and report to mark the journey’s end. And what a journey it has been; we have learnt so much and connected with so many different people and organisations along the way, it has been an absolute pleasure to be part of it.
Our focus has been primarily on the creators who have associations with our county and the chart below will give an indication of the mediums represented and objects subsequently purchased.
It would have been easy to concentrate on fine artists alone, but we quickly realised that there were many different creative industries within the county, so we tried to represent as many as possible. Generally, the work purchased reflected the twentieth century and mid-century design in particular. It was a time of great change as WWII ended and new ideas about art and design began to emerge, some of our objects purchased certainly reflect those changes. The whole project has been supported by accredited Wiltshire museums and we need to especially thank Salisbury Museum, Swindon Museum and Art Gallery, and Chippenham Museum, all supported by a range of organisations and individuals associated with the creative industries and museum service.
Many of our purchases were made direct from the makers and this has led to detailed background knowledge and provenance to accompany the objects, as well as developing strong ongoing relationships that will lead, in some instances, to the deposit of an artist’s archive at the Wiltshire and Swindon History Centre. These archives will be available to all for further study. For some more expensive items, the purchase became a joint effort as partners applied for matched funding from larger organisations, making such additions to collections possible.
Inspired by and supporting this project a wide range of activities and events have been delivered increasing access to, knowledge of and participation in heritage. These have been enjoyed by over 47,000 participants. A mapping project was produced to help museums work together, supporting purchases and collecting policies so there is less overlap and more efficient working. 105 individuals have attended a series of training courses for museum staff and volunteers, covering a variety of topics that will help make their own museums and heritage organisations as sustainable as possible. Exhibitions have been held across the county highlighting newly acquired material and encouraging responses from the audiences and other artists and creators.
This wide-ranging project created the landscape for other activities to grow, raising the profile of creatives across the county and it has been wonderful to focus on this type of contemporary art and give it recognition. Many makers enjoyed the new-found connection with heritage and were inspired to create new works.
Please allow me an indulgence to choose my favourite object purchased during the project; this is a painting by Wilfred Gabriel de Glehn of the countryside surrounding Stratford Tony, where he lived. He was a painter previously unrepresented in a main collection in Wiltshire and his impressionistic work is an important addition. His association and friendship with John Singer Sargent resulted in many painting trips abroad, especially to France and Italy, where they were also accompanied by de Glehn’s wife, Jane Emmet. The painting is now part of the collection at Salisbury Museum and I hope that we can add more works in the future by this accomplished artist.
We are fortunate to have had such a unique opportunity to connect with each other in this way and are so pleased that we have been able to put new collecting practices in place to reflect the legacy of the project. The work does not stop here, it is the start of so much more and we look forward to showing you future collections and acquisitions that reflect the creativity of the county and its people.
Last week we showcased our website and talked about how to continue accessing heritage at home. This blog is a continuation of that theme with a look at just some of the many online offers from our colleagues in heritage, arts and libraries in Wiltshire and across the UK.
For budding family historians, the closure of libraries and archives has made it more difficult to access the necessary documents and records; while there are many records online they are often behind pay-walls. However, in partnership with Ancestry the History Centre can now offer free home access to Wiltshire parish registers and wills. You can find out how to access these records from our archives home page. If you are new to family history there are plenty of free "how to" guides to help you with your research. Head to the History Centre’s own archives pages for free research tools and check out the National Archives research guide on family history. Another online genealogy resource is the Wiltshire site for Online Parish Clerks. The idea behind the project is to assist those who are researching their family history in a specific parish who might otherwise have difficulty accessing information at record offices. Also visit the Wiltshire Family History Society which has downloadable publications. (While the indexes are free, fees do apply to other publications.) Swindon Local Studies Library is able to offer free access to Find My Past for library members but downloads are limited and you do need to join the library. Watch this space for further updates on free resources.
If local history, historic buildings, or aerial photography are your thing then you are spoilt for choice. Combining local history with guided walks is historian John Chandler’s latest publication Salisbury, The History Around Us and he has made this available as a free download from Hob Nob Press. John has revised and expanded his book, which was originally published in 1992, in anticipation of the 800th anniversary celebrations of the founding of Salisbury Cathedral and City. John is a familiar face at the History Centre working on Victoria County History – VCH – volumes for Wiltshire and Gloucestershire, including most recently a volume on Chippenham. He is the author of a significant number of books on the history of the south west and promotes the work of local historians as publisher of Hob Nob Press.
Historic buildings and aerial photography are a feature of Swindon-based Historic England’s searchable online collections. Visit its archive and the home page where there are links to guides helping you explore heritage from the comfort of your own home. Part of the archive contains more than 4 million aerial photos of England, over 95,000 of which are viewable online via a dedicated website – Britain from Above. It is worth registering on this website – it is free – and this will allow you zoom in and explore the aerial photos in detail.
Another searchable database is the Wiltshire Historic Environment Record. This records all archaeological finds in the county and is a great way to discover what is under your house, road or home town. So whether it’s palaeolithic hand axes or Second World War pillboxes explore Wiltshire’s material history on the HER. And if you are interested in how buildings are dated then visit the Wiltshire Buildings Record website. Here you can learn about dendochronology (the study of tree ring growth and how it can be used to date buildings), the Wiltshire farmstead project and much more, including how to contribute to the work of the WBR.
Wiltshire is a county blessed with many wonderful historic houses and gardens, many of which are managed by the National Trust. While these beautiful spaces are currently closed to the public but the National Trust has been busy behind the scenes thinking of fun activities and challenges to carry out in our own homes and gardens. The organisation’s very popular 50 things to do before you're 11¾’ activity list has been adapted to meet the current requirement to stay at home with a selection of activities that can be done in the garden. There are wide ranging suggestions on things to do at home – for all ages – including exploring some of the National Trust’s collections on the theme of spring.
Also on an artistic theme, the Arts in Wiltshire blog has collated a number of online resources to help you take part in and enjoy creative activities at home. The blog is regularly updated so is worth checking out if you are looking for creative activities for yourself or your family. It also contains information for arts practitioners on where to go for help and guidance during this lockdown period.
Reading is hugely important for all ages and Wiltshire Libraries is making sure there is something for everyone available online. Check out Read and Rhyme on the Active Communities web page for information on Rhyme Time readings on Wiltshire libraries Facebook pages, eBooks and eMagazines, and titles for Reading Groups. The Reading Agency has also produced a toolkit to help us all stay connected during isolation, providing ideas on how to keep book groups going virtually, preparing for the Summer Reading Challenge and Reading Well which supports all ages in understanding and managing our health and wellbeing.
Continuing the reading theme, the British Library website is well worth checking out, especially its Discovering Children’s Books pages. These explore the history and rich variety of children’s literature and provide a host of great activities for all the family, from learning how to draw a Gruffalo, to making your own miniature book or even your own flying superhero. For those of you on Twitter you can keep up to date with more initiatives coming out of UK libraries by following #LibrariesFromHome. For those not on social media visit the Libraries Connected webpage.
In the previous blog we spoke about the Know Your Place website for accessing historic maps of Wiltshire and some of its neighboring counties. However, if you require access to nationwide collections then visit the National Library of Scotland maps website which has over 200,000 digital maps available for consultation. As with all new websites, getting used to the lay out and how it all works can take some time, but it does have some very useful orientation videos, which are well worth viewing before you get started.
We can’t finish this blog without a visit to The National Archives which has added some new resources following the nationwide lockdown. The boredom busters section is great for regular or new users and includes podcasts, videos, online exhibitions and more. Also, why not have a go at the online paleography (reading old handwriting) course. It is interactive, fun and will prove useful when you are able to get back into the search room to consult those all-important historic documents.
We hope this finds you all well, whether you are one of our regulars or are new to the Wiltshire & Swindon History Centre. Engaging with heritage, arts and culture really is a great way to encourage creativity and support wellbeing during these difficult times, so explore the links in this blog and keep an eye out for more material coming your way soon.
Max Parkin, Archivist & Ruth Butler, Heritage Education Officer
To all our visitors and researchers who are enduring lockdown with the rest of the country, first and foremost, we hope you and your loved ones are safe and well in these difficult times.
While the History Centre is closed we wanted to reach out and let you know that the world of heritage is still accessible in many forms online. In the first of a series of blogs we highlight all that is available on our website and draw your attention to external websites that you can connect with from it. This is a generic overview and we will be publishing more detailed blogs on specific resources and how to best use them at home in due course.
Using the ‘Our Services’ tab you will unearth huge amounts of useful research tips and tools within the Archives section, from tips for the advanced family historian to how to research LGBT history. You will also see links to information which may be of interest, such as the work of an archivist – discover what we do behind the scenes (spoiler alert, we do not spend all day reading in the basement looking at dusty documents). There really is too much to highlight in just one blog post, so head over to the Archives page and explore for yourself.
In the Local Studies section of the website you will now find video recordings of County Local Studies Librarian Julie Davis conducting a virtual memory box reading group. Simply follow this link and then choose from the sessions by following the blue links listed after each session. Enjoy!
In this section there is also a link to the Wiltshire Community History website which is a wealth of information in itself, providing information on 261 Wiltshire Communities. This is well worth checking out for anyone interested in Wiltshire as a whole, but especially for more specific locations. It is arranged very simply in alphabetical order by location and every community page already has certain basic information, such as early maps, local administrative bodies, population from 1801, newspapers for its area, lists of local maps, the registration district, information on buildings and links to other sites of interest, plus a thumbnail history of the parish.
Of course our archive collection, the largest source of information in the History Centre, is locked away in the strong-rooms and is inaccessible for the foreseeable future. However our archive and library online catalogues remain accessible. The archive catalogue will give you a descriptive overview of our collections, but please be aware you cannot view the documents online. With that in mind, make a note of the reference number of any items you may wish to consult in the future once we reopen. If you are looking for new books or magazines to read, you can search the library catalogue. If you are not already a member you can sign up to access eBooks and eMagazines. The library service is also developing more online resources, such as poetry readings; keep an eye on their website for details.
Within the ‘Explore’ tab of the History Centre’s home page there are links to fabulous websites for all forms of local history. For those of you interested in researching local maps follow the link to Know Your Place West of England, which has historic maps for all participating counties in the region, though the Wiltshire map is available here.
It is an interactive website that layers historic maps of Wiltshire, which allows for easy map comparison and is useful for seeing how your local area developed over time. Watch this space though, as we are working on adding more useful information to it in the near future.
The Creative Wiltshire link is also well worth having a browse at, the project aim was to collect and celebrate the work of the county’s creative people, and the latest blog tells the story of the project as it reaches its conclusion.
This really is just a starter and, as mentioned above, there is so much more available on and via the website. So, whether you are a keen researcher already, or new to this heritage game then have an explore but also keep an eye out for the next in this series of blogs highlighting accessible heritage in Wiltshire during lockdown. Also follow us on Twitter and Facebook for instant updates.
In 1888 William and Albert Burden, with the help of their father Thomas, founded ‘Burden Brothers’ and began manufacturing church and turret clocks. Their showroom was at 101 Fisherton Street, Salisbury, and they had a factory at 155 Wilton Road, but the factory had to be transferred to Tollgate Road after being destroyed by fire in 1899. During 1902 they sold the clock business to Williamson and Son, who traded as the English Clock Company and began to manufacture motor engines. Percy Dean, a wealthy landowner from Chitterne, supplied the initial capital of £3,800 and founded ‘Dean and Burden Brothers’ – Motor Engineers. ‘Scout’ became their product name in 1905. Percy Dean owned a car from 1903, a Georges Richard which was registered in December 1903; this date is misleading, because The Motor Car Act of 1903 required owners to register all new vehicles as well as existing ones. Percy Dean’s Georges Richard could have been used at any point prior to this date. He became a test driver and director at Motor Engineers, Dean and Burden Brothers. They moved to new premises called the ‘Excelsior Works’ in Friary Lane and began making engines for boats. During 1905 boats fitted with their engines started to make their mark, winning time trials and having success at regattas. They were already fitting their engines to bicycles, AM-65 was registered in December 1903 to a Sidney Eli Silverthorne, a watchmaker who was employed by Scout to wind and maintain clocks in the surrounding villages. The 1906 price for a Scout motor cycle was £45, a mid-range price for the time. The company’s interest in motor cycles and marine engines was not maintained and eventually phased out in favour of motor car manufacture.
The Scout Motor Car
A car was entered for the Isle of Man TT in September 1905, but unfortunately it crashed a week before the trials; the crash was reported in ‘The Autocar’ of September 1905. They managed to assemble a second car which was registered AM-702 on 4th September 1905 and arrived just in time for the trials. It started the Douglas Tourist Trophy Race with forty-one others, unfortunately it ran out of petrol 23 miles before the finish. The company was now employing around 80 men who worked 50 hours per week and paid between 2½d and 7½d per hour: about £0.80 and £2.45 today’s equivalent. Each car took 6 to 8 weeks to build and cost between £285 and £550. The Friary proved to be too small for the quantity of orders, so in 1907 the company moved to a new factory at Churchfields on Bemerton Road, now occupied by Sydenhams Timber and Builders Merchants. By 1907 thirteen cars had been registered in Wiltshire. This year saw the arrival of a ‘Landaulette’ closed body, up until this point all the bodies were open. Bodies were mostly made off-site by coachbuilders and assembled in the factory.
1909 saw the introduction of small commercial vehicles, by now the company was well established with a good reputation for quality and reliability. In 1911 Percy Dean left for British Columbia in Western Canada, which dealt a major blow to the company as he was a leading force. Mr Clifford Radcliffe who had been with the company since 1907 became Director to replace Percy Dean. 1912 saw record sales figures with 31 cars registered in Wiltshire alone. The company now employed over 150 men. 1912 saw the introduction of one of the first privately-run motor bus services in the country by Messrs J. Hall and Son of Orcheston trading as Shrewton Motor Services. The service connected the surrounding villages and Salisbury, each bus could carry 20 passengers and their luggage. Two years later the Wilts and Dorset Motor Services was founded with five of their six buses using Scout chassis.
Quite often I come across interesting things as I go about my business in the strong rooms at the WSHC. Today was no exception when I discovered this rather odd-looking book. On first glance it appears that someone has rather hurriedly wedged a large book into a small bag but on closer inspection I discovered I was looking at a medieval chemise binding.
The binding contains an Act and Memoranda Book for the Tailors’ Guild of Salisbury including byelaws, admissions of freemen and apprenticeship indentures, dating from 1444-1838 and gives us a wealth of information regarding their organisation and activities.
It is big and extremely heavy and has a particularly large piece of leather skirting along the tail edge (lower edge). It has visible sewing stitches along the edges and two metal clasps on the foredge (front edge) that attach to corresponding slits in the cover. The book dates from 1444 so is most likely an original medieval binding, although more recent sewing repairs are visible around the edges. The text block pages are made from parchment and contain varying manuscripts, some with illuminations.