Wiltshire Remembers the Windrush Generation
This year marks the 70th anniversary of the arrival of the Empire Windrush, which docked in London on 21 June 1948 carrying 492 passengers from the West Indies who planned on settling in the UK. The arrival of the Windrush is traditionally taken to mark the beginning of a period, lasting from 1948 to 1971, of migration from the Commonwealth to the UK – the “Windrush Generation”.
To celebrate the arrival of the Windrush and its passengers, and to mark Black History Month, we have put together the exhibition ‘Wiltshire Remembers the Windrush Generation’ to showcase the stories of some of the many West Indians who came to settle here in Wiltshire.
The exhibition draws on recollections gathered as part of the SEEME project, a Heritage Lottery funded community project where local people and organisations worked with Wiltshire Council, Wiltshire Music Centre & Salisbury Playhouse to collect life story testimonies from Black, Asian & minority ethnic (BAME) elders across Wiltshire to ensure that their stories are recorded and archived for future generations.
Using these recollections it covers the story of the Windrush Generation in Wiltshire, from their reasons for leaving the Caribbean and their first impressions of the UK to their working lives and sense of identity. One of the key themes that runs through all of these areas is the relationship between the new, Black, arrivals and the existing, White, communities in Wiltshire.
For example Rollin, who came to Britain in 1956, remembered clear examples of experiencing racism at work. In particular he recalled “working with a bloke and we’re working, he's my work mate, two of us are working. And he says why don't you go back on your banana tree and all that sort of thing, and I thought why, why you have to say that, y'know? Cause it's stupid! I’d say it's so good I have a banana tree I can go back, but what did he have?”
Likewise Glenda remembered experiencing casual racism throughout her life here, even very recently. “When I first came, I remember someone asking me if we lived in trees, and if we had a tail like a monkey, and but eventually comments like that sort of tailed off. But work wise, I've had problems with work. I mean just before I retired somebody I worked with called me a "black bitch” … I experienced other prejudices, like not being encouraged to further my training … And those sort of things stay with you for such a long time, and you end up getting sort of fearful for how people are going to treat you.”
The racism that many experienced was not confined to words, either – many people we talked to remembered experiencing, witnessing or hearing of physical attacks. Even before coming to Britain in 1961, Sylvia remembered hearing “that they attack black people” in Britain. Whilst living here “I never experienced it, but people would be pushing their babies - black people would be pushing their babies in a pram and some white people would come up and spit on the baby.”
Scotch had a more direct personal experience with racial violence: “in those days there what you call Teddy boys and Angels they used to walk with bicycle chain, knuckle duster and knife and things like that, ready to fight the blacks we have to prepare ourselves to protect ourselves otherwise we wouldn't be here. My brother almost got killed where four white blokes beat him up badly.”
Not all racism was as obvious as this. Tom joined the armed forces and remembers a more subtle (relatively speaking) form of discrimination. “In those days, wherever you got posted, the first thing that would happen was you would go to the camp, hand your papers in and whoever was sitting on the other side of that desk would say ahhh, a West Indian, cricket! And I would say, I do not play cricket. And they couldn’t understand that, you know they’d continue, you guys can really play cricket, what are you, batsmen or a bowler? I do not play cricket. You really don’t play cricket? And that was it. That was me ignored for the next three months. That happened everywhere I went.”
Whilst Tom’s experience of cricket was a tool of exclusion, for others it helped to bring the community together. Bert recalled that “Where I first started off in the type of work I was doing, back in 78/79 actually, there was a police who was killed by a black man in Trowbridge. And it was underlying tension, so I formed the Cavaliers, which was made out of all black people, who played for the Cavaliers. And each year we have two cricket matches against the police, we bring the black community and the police together.”
In fact, one theme that ran through the testimonies of each of the people we spoke to was the number of positive experience the settlers had. Sylvia, who remembered seeing people spit on Black babies, recalled “When we were at Bowyers we calls each other names ... like fun. You know just for fun ... Nothing just laugh and joke over it” and that “nobody was hostile to other people”.
Scotch, too, for all the racism he experienced, these days has “no problem whatsoever. It is peaceful, sometimes I've forgotten to even lock my car and come in the mornings and it's still there. I've never been burgled, I've never been in a problem with the neighbours; we're friends - we help each other in whatever way we can. I grow my allotment; I share my potatoes with them and give them whatever I can. It's pretty good – I love Trowbridge.”
The account of the Windrush generation is quite often told as a story of racism against the new settlers and their descendants. Whilst the accounts we collected make clear that racism was a very distressing part of many of the Windrush Generation’s experiences of life in Britain, they also show that racism was only one factor among many in a very varied experience.
Town Hall Arts, in partnership with the West Wiltshire Multi Faith Forum and the WSHC, will also be screening Pressure as part of the Black History Month celebrations. Set in Ladbroke Grove, West London, an area with a large Caribbean population since the 1950s, Pressure shows the spirit of the 1970’s through the life of Anthony, a black teenager, born in Britain from parents from Trinidad and his struggles to find his way and identity in a white-dominated society. It is considered the first British film with an all-black cast.
Wiltshire Remembers the Windrush Generation will be on display at Town Hall Arts, Trowbridge, on 6 October 2018 and will tour Wiltshire libraries and community venues in the future. Many thanks to Helen Pocock of HP Source of Design for designing the exhibition.
Tom Plant, Community History Advisor
- Tags: Asian & minority ethnic, Black, Black History Month, Bowyers, Commonwealth, cricket, Empire Windrush, Heritage Lottery Fund, HP Source of Design, Pressure, racism, reminiscence, SEEME, Town Hall Arts, Trowbridge, Trowbridge West Indian Cricket Team, West Indies, West Wiltshire Multi Faith Forum, Wiltshire, Wiltshire and Swindon History Centre, Wiltshire Council, Wiltshire Music Centre & Salisbury Playhouse, Windrush, Windrush Generation