Conservation

A Fascinating Find

on Tuesday, 27 March 2018. Posted in Archives, Conservation

During my ongoing survey of uncatalogued items from the collection I keep coming across unexpected and fascinating finds. This week was no exception. I opened up a paper document to find unusually dense lettering and was particularly interested as it had the signs of being iron gall ink.

Iron gall ink was extremely common from the Middle Ages through to 20th century. Unfortunately because of the chemical makeup of its ingredients it can be prone to deterioration known as ink corrosion. In its most extreme stages it can literally burn away the lettering leaving a text shape hole where it would originally have been. Because of this it is extremely important to keep an eye out for typical signs of early deterioration such as haloing around the text so that documents can be monitored for further deterioration.

Above: an example of haloing around text

However, in this case when I looked closely I found large crystals tightly packed on the surface of thicker areas of text.

Above: crystals visible on area of text (without magnification)
Above: document from a distance, text looks denser in places

Initially I thought this might have been a phenomenon of the ink itself which can reportedly create crystals on its surface, but with further investigation it became clear that these crystals are quite different in size and shape.

Above: close up of crystals

It turns out that these are most likely remnants of blotting sand. This was used until approx. the mid 1800s as an alternative to blotting paper. The writer would most likely have had a small shaker pot or box of sand or dust which they would sprinkle over the wet ink to speed up the drying process, the excess sand would then be shaken off. Although this is just a small detail, it offers an intriguing insight into the everyday life of a past age.

Sophie Coles, Assistant Conservator (Archives)

A New Start: Working as an Archive Conservator

on Monday, 05 March 2018. Posted in Archives, Conservation

In 2017 I graduated from the Conservation MA at Camberwell College of Arts and having volunteered for several years in the Archives Conservation department I began work as Assistant Archive Conservator at the WSHC. My role involves being part of the Conservation Museums Advisory Service (CMAS) who support heritage organisations in Wiltshire and beyond. Primarily I work with the archive material held at the WSHC to help maintain and preserve it for current and future generations.

Since beginning at the WSHC in August 2017 it has certainly not been quiet. So far amongst other things: I have begun to master map repair, mounted and tensioned parchment, attended several conservation surgeries, found some exciting things whilst surveying archive boxes, spent seven hours hoovering the strongrooms and made several gluten free cakes for the staffroom! Here are some of the highlights:

Parchment Tensioning

One of the parchment maps from our collection was extremely distorted so I used a conservation tensioning method to gradually reduce the cockling. Because parchment is animal skin it behaves very differently to paper and requires specific methods of treatment. It was left tensioning for two weeks before being put in a polyester enclosure and returned to the archive.

Parchment before tensioning
Parchment under tension
Parchment after tensioning in its enclosure

Overseers of the Poor Account Book

A project I am currently working on is the Overseers of the Poor Account Book

This is a large project this time involving a very fragile set of pages from 1732. These would once have been bound but now just remnants of thread remain in some pages. The paper is so damaged in areas that it is crumbling away.

Severely degraded leaf from the Overseers of the Poor account book
Loose attachment pieces from the Overseers of the Poor account book

One leaf had a pile of severely degraded papers attached with a pin. I carefully removed the loose pieces and pieced them back together where possible.

To make it accessible to the public again each page is being lined with a Japanese tissue. This is translucent enough that the writing on the side of the lining tissue is still visible whilst making the page strong enough to be handled.

   
Above: applying the lining tissue to a leaf from the volume

Degraded leaf and attachments after conservation work

The above photograph shows the main leaf and one of the attachments that I was able to piece back together, after both have been lined. The remaining pieces were grouped together by ink and writing type and enclosed in bespoke polyester pockets in the hope that they may be of use to future researchers.

Copper Conserved: Cholsey Excavations Unearth Unusual Finds in Agricultural Setting

on Tuesday, 28 November 2017. Posted in Conservation

CMAS are excited to be working on the conservation of two Roman copper alloy items recently excavated by Foundations Archaeology.

The site at Cholsey, South Oxfordshire is thought to be an Iron Age settlement which evolved into a Roman Villa site. The villa buildings have been preserved in situ, but excavations were carried out on almost 2 hectares of land surrounding them.

The excavations revealed numerous burials and enclosures including a number of impressive corn driers.

Interestingly the archaeologists propose that the site was a prosperous farm that evolved to a villa, unusual as villas were more commonly set up by representatives of the empire.

CMAS are conserving a copper alloy necklace with a circular pendant, possibly made from bone, and a large copper alloy bowl.

The bowl was found upturned within the base of a corn drier, on top of charcoal deposits.

The backfill from the demolition of the corn drier was deposited on top of the bowl. This shows that the bowl was deposited at the time that use of the drier ceased, possibly as a closing offering and that this was done at the same time as closure of the site, not at a later date.

Celebrating 70... and a boy called Heritage

on Tuesday, 07 November 2017. Posted in Archaeology, Archives, Conservation, History Centre

Archives and archivists, artists, archers and archaeologists – all were on hand to make our annual open day an event to remember.
In fact it was a triple celebration when we welcomed the public to the Wiltshire and Swindon History Centre in Chippenham.
Celebrating a decade in the “new” building would have been excuse enough for us to organise a special birthday open day, but 2017 is also the 70th anniversary of the county-wide archive being established, so we were really keen to pull out all the stops. The icing on the cake – there’s always cake at the History Centre – was the official presentation of our Archive Service Accreditation from The National Archives (TNA).

Heritage Cake - you can never have too much cake!

So at 10am on 28th October we opened our doors to the Family Fun Day and a host of activities designed to show off the wide-ranging work we do at the History Centre.
The stars of the show were a selection from the 70 favourite archives that have been featured on our website this year. It was difficult for staff and volunteers to choose their favourite archives – especially as it takes almost eight miles of shelving to house the archive collection – but all had a certain wow-factor. The display featured Kings, Queens and Presidents; artists and architects; nurses, soldiers and engineers; magnificent illuminated manuscripts and simpler texts. All had a story to tell and visitors on the day were fascinated to discover some of the gems of the collection.

A selection from the 70 favourite archives - and a wandering highwayman.

There were displays and activities showcasing all the work that takes place in the History Centre and this year for the first time our colleagues from the Copy Certificates team put on a display explaining their job. The team provides certified copies of birth, marriage and death certificates but it’s not always modern day certificates that they handle. They were able to show some of the more unusual girls and boys names from more than a hundred years ago – Lemon Maud and a boy called Heritage!

Behind the scenes with the conservators

Paste Paper Fun!

on Monday, 23 October 2017. Posted in Conservation, History Centre

Paste paper making is an historic craft technique used in bookbinding to make decorative papers for books.

They are fun and easy to make and suitable for all ages

You can come and join our workshop at our Family Fun Day on Sat 28th October at the WSHC in Chippenham, but if you can’t make it you can always have a go at home!

Materials needed:

• Corn starch paste*/ Wheat starch paste*/ wall paper paste (*see online for easy recipes)
• Acrylic tube paint/watercolours
• Paper (sugar paper is cheap and colourful and works really well)
• Some ideas for tools for mark-making:
    o Paint brushes
    o Plastic combs
    o Lollipop sticks
    o Fingers
    o Wooden spoon

What to do:

1. Mix some paint and paste together  (you want the consistency to be thick but preferably smooth without lumps)
2. Brush the paste and paint mixture onto the paper covering the whole surface
3. Create patterns by using a tool such as a comb or paintbrush (or anything else that can create a nice mark on the paper) by dragging or drawing across the surface
4. Leave to dry

Here are some that we made:

Sarah used a lollipop stick and the non-bristle end of a paintbrush to create this one
Gabby used a comb to create the subtle flower shape
Sophie used glitter paint on black sugar paper and a lollipop stick and comb to create the patterns
Beth dragged a comb across different stripes of colour
Sophie Coles, Assistant Conservator

Conservation: How to... Identify and Handle a Moth Problem

on Tuesday, 29 August 2017. Posted in Conservation

Why do infestations occur?

Various species of moth will eat materials around the home, such as wool, silk, fur and feathers including furnishings, carpets, clothes and natural history items.

Moth larvae hatch from eggs and eat any organic material around them to increase in strength and size. Once large enough they will form a cocoon and metamorphose into the adult moths. As an adult, a moth may stay put if there is enough food and potential mates – worsening an existing infestation. Alternatively they will fly to find a new location (typically during the warmer summer months) possibly starting a new infestation.

Moths like dark, undisturbed places to breed and eat; they are often to be found in wardrobes, drawers, cupboards and lofts. They can also prefer warm, damp environments.

How do you know if you have a moth problem… what are the tell-tale signs?

It is most likely that you will identify an infestation by the damage that has been caused rather than by seeing the pests themselves. It is therefore important to recognise the signs.

With most pests finding holes in items where the pests have been feeding are the most obvious clue. Frass - the name for insect poo and which looks like clumps of small grains – will often be found near the holes in an item or on the surface beneath where it is stored.

Additionally with moth infestations cocoons and webbing (silk woven over the area the lava is feeding) are sometimes left behind. The cocoons may be hard to see as they are often made from the material of the item which is infested.

Moths will often feed in the creases, folds and seams of clothing and curtains, preferring to hide away from light, remember to check items thoroughly!

How do you fix a moth problem?

[12 3 4 5  >>  

logos1

Accredited Archive Service