Early Teaching and Learning

on Tuesday, 19 May 2015. Posted in Schools

Some surprising facts emerged when I compiled a forthcoming talk at the History Centre on early education in Wiltshire. Although most Saxons were illiterate the most educated of all Saxon kings, Alfred (who had many Wiltshire associations), translated Latin books into English and from the latter years of his reign vernacular education for both laymen and clergy greatly increased. Teaching was in English until the Norman Conquest after which only Latin was used until at least 1300. During this time Oxford became a great educational centre in Western Europe but in 1238 there was a migration of students from Oxford to Salisbury and Northampton; Salisbury was an active centre of the liberal arts and theology well into the 14th century and De Vaux College (1262 – 1542) was a university college without a university.

Most educated men were trilingual – in Latin, French and English – but learning was only for the favoured few. Boys started school aged 7 and went to university at 14; children were regarded as imperfect adults and from the age of 7 were treated as adults at work, play, and by the law – as late as 1708 a 7 year old was hanged in King’s Lynn and they could also be married. Nunneries educated their own novices and many also boarded and educated other children, including small boys, in the search for additional income. For some centuries rural education was in the hands of the parish clerk while the priest had occasional gatherings of children in the church porch for religious instruction, while from 1529 boys were to be taught the alphabet, reading, singing or grammar. ABC schools had lay teachers and taught reading and spelling from a horn book or primer to girls as well as boys.

Lacock: Memories from the Village

on Saturday, 09 May 2015. Posted in Archives

My previous blog focused on the ‘Show and Tell’ event we had been organizing for the Lacock Community Archive and how we hoped it would encourage local residents to share their memories.  We were particularly excited about the possibility of discovering photographs of the local area and identifying residents who had been photographed as part of Harold White’s propaganda project ‘English Villagers’ in the 1940s.   This blog will reveal what we have discovered from that event and how we are moving forward with the Community Archive.
    
Mr and Mrs Joseph Chamberlain

The photograph above is of Mr & Mrs Joseph Chamberlain of Lacock (from The Wiltshire Times, Saturday 8 January 1921) who celebrated their Diamond Wedding Anniversary in 1921.  According to the article they had fourteen children, ten of whom were still living and forty one grandchildren and one great grandson.  Mr Chamberlain was a carter and was employed for twenty-three years in that capacity at the George Inn.   It is perhaps fitting, due to the recent election, that Mrs Chamberlain was taken in her wheelchair to vote at the last election.  Their was never a better argument in favour of women’s suffrage than her domestic history.  It is the mothers who bring England up, and they know better than the men what is wanted from Parliament.’  This is perhaps a poignant reminder of the importance of voting which many people take for granted today.          

The information concerning this newspaper article was provided by Keith Homewood, a descendant of Mr & Mrs Chamberlain, who attended the event.

Goodies and Baddies: Crime and Punishment in the Archives

on Tuesday, 05 May 2015. Posted in Archives, Crime

Crime and punishment is always a popular topic for research in the archives, and can reveal some interesting insights into life in the past. For more detail about the kinds of sources available and what they can tell you, see our guidance: http://www.wshc.eu/next-steps-in-family-history.html#prisoners

Murder and felony:

‘Wiltshire Murders’ by Nicola Sly (AAA.343) in our local studies collection describes an unpleasant case of the murder of Judith Pearce. It tells of Edward Buckland, a gypsy who had been begging and odd-jobbing around the area of Seagry for many years. Judith Pearce had been known to give him the odd crust, but one evening, refused his request to come into her cottage to warm himself by the fire. Later that evening the thatched roof of Judith’s cottage caught fire. The fire was extinguished without too much damage, but it was widely believed to have been deliberately started by Buckland, who swiftly left the area.

Later in the year, Judith and her grand-daughter Elizabeth were woken by the sounds of someone trying to enter the cottage. They barred the kitchen door, but the intruder attempted to break through with a hatchet. Judith and Elizabeth succeeded in breaking through the lathe wall of the cottage into the garden, but were pursued by the assailant. Elizabeth managed to escape and ran to relatives for help. Sadly by the time they returned Judith Pearce was dead. Nothing from the house was stolen, suggesting it was likely to be a personal grudge.

Edward Buckland, having recently returned to the area, was apprehended close to the scene the following morning, tried at the Lent Assizes in Salisbury, 1821 where he was found guilty and sentenced to death.

‘I am damned if I killed the old woman’

Records of Assize trials are held at the National Archives in Kew, and Buckland does not appear in the calendar of prisoner. However, the fact of his trial is recorded in the criminal register, viewable on Ancestry, along with the guilty verdict.

The Devizes and Wiltshire Gazette March 22nd 1821 provides a detailed account of the trial and account of the murder.

Arctic Convoy Veteran Stories Feature in New Slide Shows

on Monday, 27 April 2015. Posted in Military

Arctic convoy veterans living in Wiltshire and Swindon have allowed us to record and keep their accounts of life on board convoy ships in the Second World War.

Their accounts include dramatic moments, like receiving the order for PQ17 to scatter; reflective thoughts on the point of the convoys and memories of those who lost their lives; humorous anecdotes like the time when a man on watch realised the fin cutting through the water wasn’t a deadly torpedo ‘just a shark’.

Local 6th form students were given the opportunity to listen to some of these accounts and select from them those which they found of interest to create audio slide shows to publish on our website. One group were interested in the account of the battle to sink the German ship Scharnhorst, which became known as the battle of North Cape. A dramatic account of direct action against the enemy ship, to reduce the threat against the merchant ships on the convoy route. The second group chose a reflective piece about the 1944 convoy that repatriated 1,000s of Russian prisoners of war who were destined for the gulags.

The last group was fascinated by the accounts of life on board, the camaraderie, cockroach races, deck hockey games and other ways that the sailors passed the time when not on duty. The research helped one of the students understand more about the experiences of her relative who had served on the convoys.

All the slide shows produced by the students can now be seen on this website at http://www.wshc.eu/education/arctic-convoy-project.html

Tales from the Lacock Archives: A Dispute Concerning Trees on Bewley Common

on Wednesday, 15 April 2015. Posted in Archives

In the autumn of 1706, James Montague of Lackham sent his workmen to cut down some trees on Bewley Common, an area of land that abutted both Lackham and Lacock Manors. This commonplace country activity elicited a furious reaction from his neighbour, Sir John Talbot, the Lord of Lacock. Talbot disputed Montague's right to fell the timber and retaliated by ordering his men to cut down all the remaining trees and remove the timber for his own use. Both parties insisted that they alone had the rights to the timber in accordance with established practice and ancient agreements, and the dispute rapidly escalated over the ensuing months.

In confronting Talbot, Montague had taken on a formidable opponent. Sir John Talbot was in his 77th year, had been a long-term and very active member of Parliament, championing many causes and generally featuring at the forefront of political life for most of the second half of the turbulent 17th century. He was a committed Royalist, Protestant and Soldier and had commanded a number of regiments at various times. He survived the Glorious Revolution, despite having two arrest warrants issued against him after 1689, and was never implicated in Jacobite unrest. In short, he was a fighter, survivor, and a man experienced in the ways of the world. By contrast, Montague, aged 33, had had limited military experience and had served only three years as a rather inactive MP. He had trained as a lawyer and was a local Justice of the Peace.

It appears that as the dispute grew, Montague had resorted to the law to resolve the respective rights of the Manors of Lacock and Lackham to Bewley Common, to recover damages for the timber he claimed to have been stolen from him, and to bring those involved in 'his' timber's removal to justice. Court hearing were held in late 1706 but proved inconclusive and a further hearing was scheduled for January 1707. In the intervening period, apart from a verbal altercation in Lacock church, Montague and Talbot addressed the problem in a series of increasingly acerbic letters, despite both declaring to not like conducting "paper disputes".

Archaeology in Wiltshire Conference

on Monday, 13 April 2015. Posted in Archaeology

The third archaeology conference looks to be an exciting day showcasing some of the new discoveries and research over the last year in Wiltshire which is to be held on 18 April at the Corn Exchange in Devizes. It coincides with the International Day for Monuments and Sites, the theme of which is The Heritage of Commemoration. Some members of our team will be there on the day with displays so come say hello and find out about ways of getting involved such as volunteering opportunities in the Stonehenge and Avebury World Heritage Site

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