Cleaning and Care of Historic Metal Objects

on Tuesday, 16 April 2019. Posted in Conservation

What is corrosion?

Corrosion that appears on metal objects is a chemical reaction where the metal is trying to return to its natural mineral state. This often appears as green deposits on copper and red/brown deposits on iron. The main cause of corrosion on metals is a humid environment.

How do you remove corrosion?

Some corrosion is good! If your metal object has a thin dark layer on the surface this may be acting as a protective barrier from further break down of the surface. This is called patination or tarnish.

We would recommend you avoid trying to remove heavy build-up of corrosion yourself. This often needs to be done under a microscope in controlled conditions. Excessive use of polishes and chemicals (I’m including Cola and Ketchup in this!) could remove original surface so that details and decoration are lost. For example, you would no longer be able to identify the date of a coin if the surface was abraded and removed. It can also cause the metal to thin and wear down silver plating.  Chat to a conservator if you are concerned about the corrosion build up on your object or want to find the most suitable cleaning regime.

How do I care for the object in the future?

One of the most damaging things to metals is the oils and acids from our fingers, which can etch in to the surface of the metal. We would recommend always wearing cotton, nitrile or latex clothes when handling metal objects. This will also reduce marks and therefore the need for cleaning.

Giving the metal object a dust with a soft micro-fibre cloth or soft hog or pony hair brush will help prevent build-up of dust and dirt. Buffing or coating the surface with wax should rarely be necessary and should only ever be attempted after removing dust and dirt. Depending on the object and environmental conditions a wax or lacquer may be applied to protect the surface from humidity and prevent future corrosion development.

Store in an environment with a low humidity and pack using inert materials such as foam or acid free envelopes. A hoard of coins recently in conservation was packaged in individual acid free paper envelopes, sealed in a Polypropylene plastic box (recycling number ‘5 PP’) to provide a controlled environment and a sachet of silica gel to reduce humidity.

So, remember, avoid the cola and gently brush your objects to maintain a healthy patination!

Kayleigh Spring, Conservator, Conservation and Museums Advisory Service

Wiltshire Conservation and Museums Advisory Service is based at Wiltshire and Swindon History Centre. We preservice the Wiltshire and Swindon Archives and provide support to museums, heritage organisations and individuals to care for and conserve historic collections and meet professional standards.

If you have items in need of a little TLC see if our conservator can give you hints and tips for cleaning without damage, advice on storage or a to get a quote to have them repaired.

We hold regular conservation surgeries at WSHC from 2 – 4pm on the second Thursday of every month. The next one will be on May 9th. Book you appointment by calling 01249 705500.

New Additions to Wiltshire's Archives

on Tuesday, 16 April 2019. Posted in Archives, History Centre

Collection 4450: Certificate and pennant, from the collection of the Wiltshire Scout Council

Here at the History Centre we continue to acquire new collections to add to our archives. In this way we ensure our collections reflect as many aspects of Wiltshire life as possible, which helps us to engage with a wide diversity of research interests. So with this in mind, here is an introduction to some of the new collections we’ve received since the start of the year.

The Women’s Institute of Little Somerford have donated a significant collection of committee minute books, attendance registers and programmes dating back as far as 1941 (collection reference number 2587A). The minutes alone tell us much about the activities undertaken and the groups’ decision-making processes. In addition, the programmes show the diversity of lectures, demonstrations and competitions the group has undertaken. The collection joins over 200 other WI groups who have deposited material with us. This year marks the centenary of the foundation of Wiltshire’s Women’s Institutes with events planned all over the county.

We have also received a welcome addition to our considerable collection of tithe maps. This 1838 map covers the tithing of Widhill, part of the parish of Cricklade St Sampson, where much of the land is owned either by the Earl of Radnor or by Lord Redesdale. The accompanying apportionment document details both the occupiers and the use for each parcel of land, as well as the value of produce sent as tithe. These maps continue to prove a popular source of local, family and social history.

From the Wiltshire Scout Council comes a collection of logbooks kept by Peggy Shore Baily, the former Akela of the Westbury Leigh Cub Scouts. The collection (reference 4450) spans the years 1932 to 2007, and includes logbooks and scrapbooks, plus several of her personal photograph albums. Also, accompanying scrapbooks compiled by the First Aldbourne (Dabchick) Cub Pack and Winterslow Scout Group from 2007. This is just one of many scout and guide collections we house at the History Centre.

Collection 3840: Pages from the sketchbooks and photo albums of Lucy Tucker Mackay

Another of our new personal collections is an addition to the papers of the Mackay and Tucker families of Holt and Trowbridge (reference 3840). This new accrual concerns Lucy Tucker Mackay, and includes a collection of her beautiful sketchbooks. Lucy was a gifted watercolourist who sketched studies of flora and fauna, as well as hundreds of views both of Wiltshire and from her extensive travels across Europe and further afield. Similarly, her photograph albums detail her many travels, most notably visits to her son Edward who was stationed in India with the British Army between the late 1920s and the late 1940s. This was a key time in the relationship between Britain and India, and the albums document the British Army and their families in their leisure time.

We have recently received several very different farming collections. From Box we have a set of haulage account books from Ashley Farm (reference 2324A), covering 1909 to 1964. These detail the transportation of livestock and other goods to and from market, and includes the details of the names and addresses of farmers across Wiltshire, Somerset and Gloucestershire. The volumes are packed with details of goods and charges, and are an aid to the identification of farming families across Wiltshire and beyond.

We have also acquired sale particulars for numerous farms located at Braydon, Brinkworth, Cricklade, Potterns and Pinkney. This collection (reference 831J) dates from 1962 and 1963. Each sale particular describes the homestead, farming buildings and any standing features, plus use and acreage for the agricultural land, as well as any locally given names for parcels of land.

From Donhead St Mary we have the papers of the Bridge Farm Trust (reference 3833A), a communal farming enterprise established in 1975. The farm’s ethos combined environmental awareness with sensitive commercial dairy farming. The project also purchased a nearby farmhouse which served as a guest house and centre for the Community. Also of a farming nature, we have received a certificate presented by the Chippenham Agricultural Association to a Charles Sully, marking 29 years’ service to the Case family at Cleverton Manor Farm (reference 831H). The certificate was originally accompanied by a reward of £2, a considerable windfall at the time. This leaves us wondering whether similar certificates for agricultural long-service are out there somewhere.

Creative Wiltshire Exhibition at Salisbury Museum

on Monday, 01 April 2019. Posted in Art, Events, Museums, Wiltshire People

Museum and archive collections are, in their very nature, eclectic. They often have roots in one person’s fascination with the past and they develop and grow much like a tree putting out roots. They are often dependent on donations, and collecting policies within museums are developed to provide some structure to this form of collecting, making sure that very valuable storage space is used to advantage and the best are represented. It is not that often that choices can be made by museum and archive staff about what to purchase, what gaps to fill and who to represent.

The Heritage Lottery Funded Creative Wiltshire project has aimed to facilitate just that. With a carefully prepared bid back in 2014 we were successful in achieving funding to add to some of our Wiltshire collections and with careful consideration we have purchased items that aim to fill gaps, often representing a new creator with a strong Wiltshire connection. We are now reaching the end of this project and our final exhibition at Salisbury Museum will show off some of our recent purchases.

This project is not just about the purchases, it is also about offering training and development to volunteers and staff associated with museums within the county, as well as education workshops, a tool kit for teachers and other events in the wider community. The exhibition at Salisbury Museum has provided a perfect opportunity to put an ‘Exhibitions Assistant Trainee’ in place, to plan, oversee and install the final exhibition with the support of the Salisbury Museum Director, Adrian Green and his team. Thank you to Emily Smith, our successful applicant, who has been able to gain great ‘hands on’ experience of all aspects of exhibition work within a museum context. We gave her a tough brief; expecting planning, curation, exhibition design, mounting of work, co-ordinating staff, borrowing and transferring of objects required from around the county and she has had a busy four months putting this in place. We thank you for your enthusiasm and we are thrilled with the results. The exhibition at Salisbury Museum has now been extended to 29th September 2019; why not pop in and see what you think? You will find work by Rex and Laurence Whistler, Howard Phipps, Nancy Nicholson, Nick Andrew, Jonathan Wylder and Wilfred Gabriel de Glehn, amongst others.

Emily Smith - Exhibitions Assistant Trainee celebrating her work

During the course of the project other exhibitions have been held at Swindon Museum and Art Gallery and Chippenham Museum and both have focused on recent acquisitions to their collections. Sophie Cummings of Swindon Museum and Art Gallery says the project has exceeded her expectations and allowed them to purchase pieces by Ken White, previously un-represented in their collection, as well as fine art by Joe Tilson, Harold Dearden, David Bent and Janet Boulton and ceramics by Katherine Pleydell-Bouverie, Patricia Volk and Sasha Wardell.

The current exhibitions at Swindon Museum and Art Gallery are well worth a visit.

An Art of the People – Ramsbury & Cricklade Potteries features work by Ivan and Kay Martin of Cricklade, and Peter Holdsworth of Ramsbury.

An Art of the People – Ramsbury & Cricklade Potteries

Out of the Box: An exhibition of paintings by David Bent

An exhibition of work by David Bent which includes geometric landscapes, intricate photographic collages and paintings as well as his aviation art and “Movement 2000” series. Stunning and inspiring work by this Swindon based artist.

A New Website for Archaeology

on Monday, 18 March 2019. Posted in Archaeology, History Centre

Do you have an interest in archaeology? Would you like to know what has been found in your local area, or want to know more about how people lived in Wiltshire in the past? If so, then you might be interested to access our new website that allows you to research the finds, buildings, sites and monuments that exist on the county Historic Environment Record (HER).

Remains of Clarendon Palace – A Medieval Royal Site

The Historic Environment Record (HER) is a fantastic resource that holds information on all the currently known archaeology for Wiltshire and Swindon. This includes everything from Palaeolithic flint tools that are half a million years old to World War I practice trenches created only a hundred years ago – as well as everything in between! Using the HER can be fun and helps to guide your research, as it can tell you about the character and date of archaeological sites/finds as well as how they have been investigated and where you can find more (such as in journals, books and reports).

The new website allows people to easily search the archaeology of Wiltshire and presents data on both a map and dynamic database. To have a go, click to visit the HER homepage

Online HER homepage

The new website is easier to use than our previous one and allows you to search by the following themes:
• Unique identifier number – so you can find records you’ve accessed before…
• Keyword – to find particular find/site types – such as castles or axeheads!
• Site name – for place names you know like your parish church or famous sites like Stonehenge!
• Period – so you can see all Roman artefacts or all prehistoric archaeology we know about…
• Grid reference – if you know exactly where you want to research - whether rural or urban!

Online HER search bar

You can also browse by navigating the interactive map – which can show both Ordnance Survey mapping or aerial photography. You can pan and zoom using the tools and the grid reference of your location handily shows at the top in case you need it!

Behind the scenes at Chippenham Museum: Reconstructing Roman Ceramics

on Wednesday, 06 March 2019. Posted in Archaeology, Conservation

A number of Roman finds were recently uncovered in the back garden of Marc Allum, a specialist on the Antiques Roadshow, during excavations organised by Chippenham Museum volunteers Clive Green and Mike Stone.

Mr Allum kindly donated the finds to Chippenham Museum. The Friends of Chippenham Museum worked hard to raise funds for the conservation of one of the finds - a fine Samian ware bowl - and conservators at CMAS were privileged to undertake the reconstruction of this beautiful piece.

The Samian ware is an example of a Dragendorff type 37 bowl, suggesting it is Gaulish dating from c. AD 70-130. The bowl has intricate decorative panels with repeating motifs of Gladiators battling wild cats and a more risqué scene thought to depict the deity Bacchus.

The Samian ware was found in 51 fragments forming almost half the bowl. Due to the fine nature of the form and decoration it was decided to fully reconstruct the piece, replacing lost areas to give more complete impression of its original form.

The conservator worked hard to piece together all the fragments. Interestingly the way the ceramic had broken into layers reveals its method of construction. Samian ware with such detailed patterns was formed by pressing clay into preformed moulds. The ceramic has split along the lines of the layers that were built up.

Graham Taylor of Potted History (@Pottedhistory) has created replica moulds for the vessel and its decorative features in order to produce a facsimile using the same techniques.

Once the form of the original ceramic was determined it was possible to create an accurate profile from base to rim using measurements of the thickness of the ceramic fragments and the diameter of the base and rim, comparing these with known examples.

The profile was used to form an accurate core in clay to which the original ceramic could be secured. Plaster replacement fills were then ‘spun’ using the profile as a guide. It was decided to only replace larger areas and those smaller areas required for strength.

A Most Indebted Clergyman

on Monday, 18 February 2019. Posted in Archives, Wiltshire People

Henry Goddard, a pluralist clergyman, was imprisoned in the debtors’ prison of King’s Bench in 1817 (he was admitted 7 March).

At the time he was rector of Castle Eaton (from 1797), vicar of Longbridge Deverill with Monkton Deverill (from 1805) and curate of Maiden Bradley (from 1797), livings which he held until his death in 1829. His petition to the Court for the Relief of Insolvent Debtors is filed in the diocesan archives together with the various sequestration bonds and writs, which allowed for the income of the benefices to be diverted in for the benefit of the creditors of the incumbent.

WSA D1/46/2/3

The document provides a detailed record of his parlous financial position. The schedule of debts, amounted to almost £8000 (including £4000 due to rev Christopher Rigby Collins, Salisbury, for an annuity granted in 1811 who had sequestered Goddard’s livings in 1816 for arrears). In the list of 79 creditors are members of the local gentry, as well as Collins, who had loaned him money. These included JD Ashley (recte Astley) of Bury cottage, Warminster (£150), the executrix of William Hinton of Bishopstrow (£230), and Richard Long MP, Rood Ashton (£20). The vast majority of creditors were tradesmen for goods and services supplied. The latter are mainly from Warminster and its vicinity and illustrate the range of trades in this town (William King coach maker, William Cox cabinet maker, William Manley perfumer and toyman (seller of toys, fancy goods), Sampson Payne Glassman, a fruiterer, pastry cook, druggist, surgeon, hairdresser, tailor, pork dealer, milliner, seedsman, wine merchant and stationer). Several of these appear in the 1830 trade Directory of the town which gives addresses. Beyond the town the trail of debt reached millers, maltsters and innkeepers, as well as John Dwall (Doel), Horningsham, butcher, and Thomas Morsfield, Longbridge D, blacksmith, John Tucker Brixton Deverill, carpenter and John Heall, Hill Deverill, miler. It also reached to Bath and London and even touched Mr Sims, landlord of The Old Down Inn, outside Wells in Somerset. A former servant also appears: Ann Churchill, now at Capt Jennings at Chitterne, owed £10 for wages to 1816.

 

Evidence of his son’s education can also be gleaned through debts to: rev Rowlandson, Warminster in 1815 (£30 owed); rev John Cutler, Free Grammar SEast Woodhaychool Sherborne to Midsummer 1817 (£25), and then to Winchester College in 1817 (£6.18s).  Tragically the boy, Henry William, whose was baptised in 1807, died, aged 13, and was buried at Winchester college in 1818 (both events recorded in the Longbridge Deverill parish registers).

Loans of money dated as far back as 1802; goods and services as back as far as 1812, which indicate the potential difficulties of cash flow that small independent traders faced.

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